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Thank you all for making AdChem tolerable.

Who Would Be Tsar of Russia Today?

Jay, thank you for being the competent, focused one who finishes the labs and actually reads the textbook. Your intelligence, Clash Royale skills, and cheeto-colored hair will take you far in life. Nafay, I hope you find someone else to annoy during classes, and I wish you the best of luck with ISA next year.

Ajay, though you were asleep half of the time in AdChem, I know your inner beast will make you successful in the future. To Ray, I will you another worthy opponent on your list. One day I will fight you for real, so get your gloves ready. I hope your senior year is unforgettable, filled with spontaneous adventures and deep talks. To Alyssa Daniels,I will you a water bottle that you never lose. I also will you a dope friend who shares the same goofy sense of humor and keeps you entertained during carpools and classes.

You are honestly one of the coolest human beans on this planet. I hope you keep dancing your heart out, singing until your voice cracks, and playing music until you become a famous star. Good luck with everything next year, from college apps and dance team to Casa and Mod Make the most out of senior year and enjoy all of your last memories. Stay hydrated and rock on, dude. To Peter Bafoe, I will you someone who breaks out into epic, cringey dance battles with you.

I hope you have a great senior year and keep laughing out loud uncontrollably. To Rachel Tin, I will you a cute sophomore who makes you feel warm and fuzzy on the inside. You are adorable, and I wish I had gotten to know you sooner. I hope you enjoy the rest of IMSA, baby soph. To Jaden Turner, I will you pancake parties with friends past your in-room. I hope you make more incredible profile pictures and Clash memories. Thank you for being so sweet and talented with makeup. To Wyatt Wren, I will you absolutely everything.

You are a god. I will that you continue to exude confidence and use that skill to do things you never thought you could. You are so outgoing and kind and I know that I will see you in the news one day doing something I could only dream of. Thank you for being the absolute best little sibling and for always saying hello—it always brightens my day!

Also, keep being a fashion icon. To Abigail Light, I will that you never lose the brightness that you bring everywhere you go. I know it is easy to put yourself down, but I remember that you mean more than you will ever know to the people around you. Thank you for being there for me always and I hope I have been able to do the same for you. I hope you guys continue to spread art around campus and find a way to make Heliotrope a more prominent name amongst the student body. To Liza Kuzmina, I will you a well-deserved wonderful senior year.

Thank you for making others smile when they need it most and for being such a bright presence in Good luck with Clara mahahhaah. To Heewon Kim, I will you a very well-dressed and successful junior year. Junior year can get pretty ruff but I firmly believe a good outfit can fix everything. Though you often portray yourself as comedic and careless, your kindness toward others always shows through and I can honestly say that you are someone I look up to.

I hope someday to have your reasonable and optimistic outlook on life. Thank you for absolutely everything. I will you every happiness in this world. I love you, Clonk!!! You guys have helped the team reach heights and accomplishments that nobody would have thought an IMSA team could do before. All of you guys are great players and if you guys all work a little bit, you guys can continue the legacy that we have started the past few years. I hope you guys put all your effort into the team, and maybe bring back a regional championship.

To the rest of the soccer team, I will you guys another great season. I hope you guys continue to listen to Dan and Josiah and continue to get better. You guys can bring back another conference championship and get back to the same levels that we reached this season. To Nafay Abdul, I will you a sustained work ethic in everything that you do. Whether it is school, soccer, or ISA, I hope you continue to put in the work, effort, and passion into everything that you do.

I wish that you strike a balance between these things, but at the same time, are able to have fun and get sleep. If you are ever overworked, just take a break from something for a couple days, and then get back on the grind. To Hasan Almousawi, I will you a sophomore that you can play soccer with at any time.

Hopefully, you continue to play and practice in your free time, so that you continue to get better. Continue doing your freestyle and juggling tricks, but also, I hope you also reach a new level in scoring and creating for the rest of the team. I know you have the ability to do it, all you need is to practice a little. To Ray Shang, I will you an underclassman that is always willing to help you out and willing to talk to you about anything.

To Sid Panda, Nikita Elkin, Ishan Nikam, and Moksh Shah, I will you guys underclassmen that you can go whenever whether it is if you need to talk to someone, if you need help on homework, or if you guys just want to mess around. I hope you guys continue spending nights with each other just messing around. Make sure you guys strike a balance between school, your extracurriculars, and wasting time doing dumb things.

To Brian Schatteman, I will you an underclassman that you can mess with. I hope that you are able to find someone that you can have a great relationship with as well as make fun of. If you continue to take Spanish, I hope you continue to persevere through the struggle that I have left behind. To Pascal Adhikary, I will you an underclassman that you can talk about anything with.

Whether you need some help on physics or Spanish, you want to talk about the most random rappers, or you want to talk about the various grinds, I hope you have someone that you can have these conversations with. To Ajay Jayaraman, I will you a sophomore that will do random, interesting things with you.

Whether you create something new, like eeeeeeeeeee, or decide to make new, interesting noises, I hope there is an underclassman that you can do this with. If you ever need someone to just go to, I hope you can find that in one of your underclassman. To Zayn Ramdass and Ryan Talusan, I will you guys underclassmen that will brighten your day every time that you see or interact with them. You guys always seem to have a smile on your face and I hope you can find underclassmen that can do the same for you whenever you guys need an uptick in happiness.

To Jorge Chavez, Ben Weber, Yair Guerrero, and Alejandro Carillo, I will you guys sophomores that you can hang out with whenever you want, whether it is to make fun of them, to talk about soccer or volleyball, or to talk about music. You guys are always having fun with each other, and I hope that continues. I hope that you guys are also there for each other whenever one of you needs it.

Since I first met you guys at SEAMS, where you were all messing around and causing trouble, I knew you guys were great and carefree guys. I hope you guys branch out a little more and leave 05 and talk to other upperclassmen and hopefully find great underclassmen next year. I pray that you get committed sophomores and do with the team what I could not. To Alec Chen, I will a less tank co. To Sam Schenum, I will a little brother for you to look after as I have looked after you.

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Of course, with it I also will the signed portrait we received from our down quad, which you should continue to pass on, as well as spots on the pole. I hope you guys are happy wherever you end up living next year! To Eliot Smith, I will a new stargazing partner. Those starry nights at the start of the year were some of the best! To Alyssa Daniels and Ashley Homecgoy, I will someone who will give you weird looks and say your names very loudly when they pass you in the hallway.

Once I leave, someone else will have to take my place and annoy you. To Miles Oquendo, I will you some life. I also will you people who will be there to play random video games with you. I also will you the ability to corrupt others with our chaos. Make sure to get the rest of the quad to get involved and have just the right amount of fun. To Addison Henikoff, I will you annoying sophomores that will invade your room every night, so you get to know how it feels ;. Also, I will you a stable and fun Junior year. I got to see you channel it in both wing wars and when you stepped up for movie.

I hope that same energy brings you far in your IMSA career. To Aidan Stueck, I will you big music energy. I hope to see you make some cool stuff in the future. I also will you continued humor, although I think you will keep being funny whether I will you anything or not :. To Andrew Tatum, I will you quality late nights with your quad for your senior year. I know you used to stay up too late with us, but those nights were always so fun despite the sleep deprivation that came with them.

I also will you some brain cells, because sometimes bruh you need some. Otherwise, how are you possibly going to handle not having someone make fun of you all the time? Life will be terrible! In the end, though, I hope that underneath all that sass, that underclassmen will also genuinely care about you. If not, why would you deal with them? To Ryan Talusan, I will you all the pancit and lechon I can get to you in these last few weeks.

I also will you the smooth moves to shimmy your way through senior year, both literally I better see u break it down ; and figuratively I also better see u live ur best life. As you probably already know, it was a gift from the great Dr. Condie to Chris Chang at the elective fair three years ago, who willed it to me. Now, I will it to you. Take great care of it, and may it bring you the best of luck in all your weird and wacky endeavors.

Hopefully, you can find an underclassman who you think will be worthy of it in the coming years. Thus, I hope that no matter how 01 evolves coming into next year, you will all be able to build a safe and friendly community for everyone in the hall.

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For these past three years, the distance squad has been my second family, and I hope that you all will continue to feel that way even after some of us are gone. Make sure that this team stays just as supportive, welcoming, and fun as it has been for years, and I promise you that the memories you make next year will be ones to remember! It was honestly such a blast living in the same wing as you all as a senior. I have never seen such a talented, hard-working, and most importantly caring group of gentlemen, and I have no doubts that next year will be a highlight in both your academic and social endeavors.

So be bold! Take risks! The campus is yours to own. Make the most of them,and know that there IS a silver lining! Thank you guys so much for being some of the best sophomores a senior can ask for.

Alexander Palace Time Machine

Make us proud! To Delicia Chen, I will you encouragement to follow your dreams. Even though we live under the same roof, you never cease to amaze me with how smart you are. As you begin to find things that you can see your future in, know that mom, dad, and I are always supporting you. May she forever only wear one at a time!!! You guys are all so creative and imaginative, and I would never entrust another group of people to entertain, unite, and destress the IMSA campus next year.

Although this year was pretty lit, I already know that next year will be even better!

  1. Alexander III of Russia.
  2. The Home of the Last Tsar - Romanov and Russian History?
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  4. The Senior Edition – The Acronym | IMSA's Official Student Newspaper;
  5. Pages in category "Alexander I of Russia".
  6. Sentencing Canudos: Subalternity in the Backlands of Brazil (Pitt Illuminations).
  8. To Jason Liu I will the speed to take you to the 1 spot on the team. To Ishaar Ganesan I will success and some free time. You are one of the most hardworking and intelligent individuals I know, and I know that all your hard work will pay off eventually. In your final year of IMSA, I want you to finally take some time off to just chill out and not worry about the future. SSS is a wonderful time, and I hope you enjoy it. To Jay Ganesan I will 20 more strikes and a captain who will give them to you. I know you are probably in the triple digits for strikes at this point, but you are still one of the best sophs on the team.

    I hope you accomplish everything you want to with LEAD next year, you were an amazing co. To Diana Gonzalez I will someone to choreograph Cumbia with. I will more fun meetings, board bonding, and another great Casa de Alma. To Grant Fiedler I will another great season of track and teammates to meme with. Have a great senior year. You are going to be upperclassmen next year, so be responsible with this power, especially since as juniors, sophomores will listen to everything you have to say.

    You are one of my favorite people in B-wing, thanks for hanging out with the quad this year. To Alex Sobczynski I will someone else who recognizes your great taste in TV shows and someone who appreciates your humor. It was really nice getting to know you this year, and I hope senior year goes exactly how you want it. To Liza Kuzmina I will a co who preps with you more, not just because we missed a few times, but because hanging out with you was so amazing and I hope whoever your next co is realizes that.

    To Ethan Tse, I will you an underclassman that will call you whenever class is about to start and unlimited sodexo knives. Also, you were the only part of Diglit that I found tolerable. I wish you the best of luck with soccer and LEAD and all your other endeavors : I hope you have an amazing senior year as you have helped make mine. Three: I will you confidence. Your goofy smile and random comments never fail to make me laugh. Thank you. Good luck next year!! To Sam Lazcano, I will you a never ending supply of dog pics, the lake behind my house, and sandals without socks.

    And a wonderful senior year. You deserve it. Come visit me next year! To Nafay, I will you a carry. Make sure you take time for yourself. Have some fun :. To Klaybis… Hey sweetie! I will you a relaxing senior year outside of To Alyssa Daniels, I will you the ability to stay as cool as you are now. Like damn. To Liza, My child I will you some more amazing underclassmen to keep you going through your senior year.

    To Alyssa, my fave nerd. I will you an unlimited supply of food and sleep. I love how passionate you are about everything that you do and I hope that next year you take some time to get some sleep my child. To Allia, My child I will you an unlimited supply of stuffed penguins and all things penguins in your future. I hope that senior year goes amazing for you and that you get all of the rest and breaks that you need.

    I also hope that you get underclassmen as amazing as I had to keep you going through senior year. I also really hope that you stop falling off of your bed because I want you to not break anything next year. I love you very much and call or snap me next year! To Tay, My son I will you all the patience in the world and amazing underclassmen to get through senior year.

    I know that without you I definitely would not have gotten through OOP or a big part of my senior year. I loved working with you for Drama and Anime Club. To Em, I will you all of the cuffed jeans in the world. I hope that next year Spectrum goes as amazingly as it did this year thanks to all of the handwork that you did.

    I love how hardworking you are and how genuinely caring you are for everyone. You were honestly one of the best little siblings that an upperclassmen could ask for. I hope that you have the best underclassmen to hang out with and talk with. I hope that Senior year goes great for you and that you get to do everything you want to achieve.

    To Makayla, I will you all the Harry Potter and anime merch. I loved how we really bonded my junior year over our love for Yuri on Ice. I love how driven you are to care for everyone within the wing and in the community. I hope that your Senior year goes as smoothly as possible and that you get to play all of the games you want while you relax.

    To Diana, I will you our amazing Baritone section and Rohan. To Sam, I will you early band rehearsals because we both know you sometimes showed up at instead of Honestly, despite you giving me a headache with your cringeyness I still love you! Te quiero mucho Samantha!! To Drea, I will you an amazing Casa show next year.

    It was really nice getting to know you more throughout the year and I hope that next year you get to do just as amazing things as we got to do this year. Also thanks for being my Salsa partner and putting up with my antics during practices. To 01C wing, I will you guys an amazing wing next year. I hope that the amazing community within the wing continues on to next year and that you all have a great community to come back to everyday.

    I also hope that you guys just have amazing school years. To Bala Ramaraju, I have nothing to will but all my love. Please stay in touch with me and keep me updated with your life. I hope you find your gray and maroon scissors. To Caitlyn Castillo, I will you the Hadron club fair chalkboard poster. Hadron has been my greatest accomplishment at IMSA, and working with you was the only reason it all came together as well as it did. To Meghana Karan, I will you cups of chai and gossip to last you a lifetime. Have a good, happy senior year. To Sonia Edassery, I will you the perfect cup of coffee.

    You never ever fail to make my day Sonia. Thank you for all of the morning wake-up calls and the endless cups of coffee. I love you so much, and I miss you so much in B-wing. To Winny Liu, I will you an underclassman that will scream your name in the hallways. You have a good head on your shoulders. Take care of yourself, it matters a lot more than people realize junior year. I love you, and please stay in touch after I graduate.

    To Zahra Vasi, I will you an underclassman friend crush. Live your senior year fully, and have no regrets. I wish you the very best. To Ryan Talusan, I will you an underclassman with squishy cheeks. I also will you the confidence to know how wonderful you are. You are an intelligent, talented, and cute lil squish. To Alison Deng, I will you a place to call home. I hope your senior year is a rewarding time of happiness, contentedness, and reflection.

    I also will you lots of stuffed animals. You are so intelligent, and I really lucked out to be MAD partners with you. I hope you have an absolutely wonderful senior year, and I hope we stay in touch! First semester senior year can get really rough, and you have no idea how much our dinky table helped on some of my most stressful days. To Phyllis, Megan, Olivia, and Paola, I will you underclassmen who make you so so proud to live in your wing. Your friendship and laughter always always made me smile.

    I hope you guys have a wonderful time at IMSA. To Sarah Yow, I will you instant responses. I will always always always be there for you to talk to. Any time you need me, I will do my absolute best to make myself available. Sometimes all I really needed was someone to talk to. Someone separate from my day to day life where I could just be. If you ever need that person, you can come to me. To Maia Peregrino, I will you two more amazing Clash experiences. As much stress as it may have been, I hope Clash was as rewarding for you as it was for me.

    You are such a loving and talented person. Stay happy and passionate. To Abhi Thati, I will you a sophomore who never fails to simultaneously make you laugh and infuriate you. Have a good time at IMSA, and stay in touch. To Devraj Thakkar, I will you a sophomore with as much passion as you have. Apathy is a disease at IMSA that starts to settle in over the years; fight it. You reminded me how exciting it is to be at a place with so many amazing opportunities. To Vasu Chalasani, I will you the rep. You know what to do. To Isha Kadakia, I will you a sophomore to bully out of love.

    To Chandra and Ahana, I will you a sophomore roommate pair that reminds you of yourselves. I hope you both have wonderfully rewarding times at IMSA. Whoever gets it next, please take care of it. This wing and our 6 wing war dubs has been my home, and I hope whoever lives here next loves it as much as I did. I am going to miss my small little visits to your room. Thank you for listening to my boy problems, rants, story times and emotionally supporting me in math classes. Senior year may hit you hard, but you will pull through.

    I promise. I also will you comic 6 poster. Go hard during COTH ! Pop off sis! To Grace Federici, I will you endless cuddles along with more cloud-free, bright days that you can appreciate from your L-Room. I am TT thinking about not being able to cuddle you. Because going to your room even though it was upstairs and cuddling you was one of the things that always made my day better. Your goofy sense of humor and crazy-funky ideas always made me laugh. You have an unique charm that draws people into your life. To Rustom Ichhaporia, I will you trust. Trust in yourself and trust in others.

    You have had more of an impact on me than you could possibly imagine. Ironically, you always found me in my saddest moments, the moments where I liked to internalize. Yet, I found comfort in your words. I found a bit of myself from you. I hope you build meaningful connections here that helps you find a bit of yourself.

    Even if there seems to be no light in your path, your authenticity will shine through.

    Alejandro Romanov (Spanish Edition) - AbeBooks - Silvia Miguens:

    You are a smart kid, you know what to do. Although, I am horrible at texting, remember I am always here for you, rooting for you. To Max Knutson, I will you a double-layered, armored heart that no one, not even yourself, can break. I still remember our first encounter when you were not even a sophomore at IMSA. I know you may not believe me, but even before IMSA, you were full of spark. Taking you under my wing and watching you grow through your own actions brought me so much happiness.

    Even when I am gone, make sure you have your head screwed on right. You do you! To Shruti Shakthivel, I will you time. You astonish me with your determination that makes you accomplish incredible things that you put your mind into. You are the hardest working girl I know and I have no doubt that you will get everything that you desire in the future.

    Even though prioritizing school and clubs is important, make sure to have fun and take care of yourself. To Jemea Hilmara, I will you a room full of tea literally and figuratively. I always enjoyed coming into your room at the most random times, spilling the spiel. Remind yourself how much of an intelligent, strong, young lady you are. Search for your drive. Search for your passion. No matter how far I am, hit me up anytime. To Andrew Du, I will you anything you want. I will grant you a wish! The amount of generosity and care you show for people around you is something that I love about you.

    I am thrilled to see what you will accomplish in your future. To Amanda Chen, my little baby, I will you my other baby: 06 profile picture. You are an extremely talented young lady. As you step in an important year of your life, I wish you the bestest luck. Always know that I am just a call or a message away. So I was wondering, can you braid my hair, one last time? To Pascal Adhikary, I will you an underclassman who never fails to make you smile. Gloria, Josh and I have probably been the most tank executive board members, but thank you for dealing with us.

    You have the talent and the skill to create things that are beyond imagination. I am eager to see your creativity blossom. To Samira Cheruku, I will you warm weathers that are as warm as you. I blame myself so much for not getting to know you earlier. I am immensely thankful that the Habi trip has brought us closer. Your heart is full of kindness and love. Spread your love and kindness. Everything has a way of working out at the end of the day. To Ajay Jayaraman, I will you more mall trips.

    Pick a date and time, we will go to the mall together before I leave. I feel that we have connected on a spiritual level with our obsession with clothes, clothes and more clothes. It makes my heart warm to see someone as passionate as you about fashion. Stay Gucci. To Deepu Chintala, I will you an underclassman who is as cute as you. I will definitely miss our handshake;. To Frances Balto, I will you more deep, meaningful conversations with the people around you.

    Your maturity truly made me question my authority as an upperclassman as I learned so much from you. So, thank you for gifting me advices, conversations, laughs and courage. I also will you a better 06 movie rip. Chicago was cold but you surely made the entire movie-filming warm like yourself. Have the most fun senior year because you deserve it. To Lauren Crowe, I will you a voice: a voice that can speak your passion and share your passion with others. I am so proud of you for being authentically you.

    I am looking forward to hearing your voice, hearing the changes you create with your voice. To Cait Castillo, I will you a bouquet of flowers wink wink. I will you this to remind you to love yourself. The compassion you show towards this campus is what this community needs. I can not wait to see what the future has in store for you. Always take care of yourself first. I admire your passion. You put your best effort in everything you do and I worry that you might crash and burn. Make sure to take a break and enjoy the limited time you have at IMSA.

    I can assure you, the most memorable memories are the small, unexpected moments in your life. I will you all no housekeeping during SSS. Most importantly, keep the piercing and the hair cutting going:. To Joseph Bertrand, I will you your own Dan. I know you always wanted to steal mine, but you, too, shall have one of your own someday. You can use this same strategy next year when you strategically delegate work to the newbies. His straightforward, abrupt manner savoured sometimes of gruffness, while his direct, unadorned method of expressing himself harmonized well with his rough-hewn, immobile features and somewhat sluggish movements.

    His education was not such as to soften these peculiarities. A sebaceous cyst on the left side of his nose caused him to be mocked by some of his contemporaries, and he sat for photographs and portraits with the right side of his face most prominent. I was struck by the size of the man, and although cumbersome and heavy, he was still a mighty figure. There was indeed something of the muzhik [Russian peasant] about him.

    The look of his bright eyes made quite an impression on me. As he passed where I was standing, he raised his head for a second, and to this day I can remember what I felt as our eyes met. It was a look as cold as steel, in which there was something threatening, even frightening, and it struck me like a blow. The Tsar's gaze! The look of a man who stood above all others, but who carried a monstrous burden and who every minute had to fear for his life and the lives of those closest to him. In later years I came into contact with the Emperor on several occasions, and I felt not the slightest bit timid.

    Though he was destined to be a strongly counter-reforming emperor, Alexander had little prospect of succeeding to the throne during the first two decades of his life, as he had an elder brother, Nicholas , who seemed of robust constitution. Great solicitude was devoted to the education of Nicholas as tsesarevich , whereas Alexander received only the training of an ordinary Grand Duke of that period.

    This included acquaintance with French , English and German , and military drill.

    Alexander I of Russia

    Alexander became Tsarevich upon Nicholas's sudden death in ; it was then that he began to study the principles of law and administration under Konstantin Pobedonostsev , then a professor of civil law at Moscow State University and later from chief procurator of the Holy Synod of the Orthodox Church in Russia. Pobedonostsev instilled into the young man's mind the belief that zeal for Russian Orthodox thought was an essential factor of Russian patriotism to be cultivated by every right-minded emperor.

    While he was heir apparent from to Alexander did not play a prominent part in public affairs, but allowed it to become known that he had ideas which did not coincide with the principles of the existing government. The union proved a happy one to the end; unlike his father's, there was no adultery in his marriage.

    The couple spent their wedding night at the Tsarevich's private dacha known as "My Property". Later on the Tsarevich became estranged from his father; this was due to their vastly differing political views, as well was his resentment towards Alexander II's long-standing relationship with Catherine Dolgorukov with whom he had several illegitimate children while his mother, the Empress , was suffering from chronic ill-health.

    On 1 March O. Alexander's father, Alexander II , was assassinated by members of the terrorist organization Narodnaya Volya. As a result, he ascended to the Russian imperial throne in Nennal on 13 March Alexander's ascension to the throne was followed by an outbreak of anti-Jewish riots.

    Alexander III disliked the extravagance of the rest of his family. It was also expensive for the Crown to pay so many grand dukes each year. Each one received an annual salary of , rubles, and grand duchesses received a dowry of a million when they married. He limited the title of grand duke and duchess to only children and male-line grandchildren of emperors. The rest would bear a princely title and the style of Serene Highness. He also forbade morganatic marriages , as well as those outside of the Orthodoxy. On the day of his assassination Alexander II had signed an ukaz setting up consultative commissions to advise the monarch.

    On ascending to the throne, however, Alexander III took Pobedonostsev's advice and canceled the policy before its publication. He made it clear that his autocracy would not be limited. All of Alexander III's internal reforms aimed to reverse the liberalization that had occurred in his father's reign. The new Emperor believed that remaining true to Russian Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality the ideology introduced by his grandfather, emperor Nicholas I would save Russia from revolutionary agitation.

    Alexander's political ideal was a nation composed of a single nationality, language, and religion, as well as one form of administration. He attempted to realize this by the institution of mandatory teaching of the Russian language throughout the empire, including to his German , Polish , and other non-Russian subjects with the exception of the Finns , by the patronization of Eastern Orthodoxy , by the destruction of the remnants of German, Polish, and Swedish institutions in the respective provinces, and by the weakening of Judaism through persecution of the Jews.

    The latter policy was implemented in the " May Laws " of , which banned Jews from inhabiting rural areas and shtetls even within the Pale of Settlement and restricted the occupations in which they could engage. Alexander weakened the power of the zemstvo elective local administrative bodies resembling British parish councils and placed the administration of peasant communes under the supervision of land-owning proprietors appointed by his government.

    These "land captains" zemskiye nachalniki were feared and resented throughout the Empire's peasant communities. These acts weakened the nobility and the peasantry and brought Imperial administration under the Emperor's personal control. In such policies Alexander III had the encouragement of Konstantin Pobedonostsev , who retained control of the Church in Russia through his long tenure as Procurator of the Holy Synod from to and who became tutor to Alexander's son and heir, Nicholas.

    Pobedonostsev appears as "Toporov" in Tolstoy's novel Resurrection. Other conservative advisors included Count D. Tolstoy minister of education, and later of internal affairs and I. Durnovo D. Tolstoy's successor in the latter post. Mikhail Katkov and other journalists supported the emperor in his autocracy. The famine of — and the ensuing cholera epidemic permitted some liberal activity, as the Russian government could not cope with the crisis and had to allow zemstvos to help with relief among others, Tolstoy helped organize soup-kitchens, and Chekhov directed anti-cholera precautions in several villages.

    In foreign affairs Alexander III was a man of peace, but not at any price, and held that the best means of averting war is to be well-prepared for it. Diplomat Nikolay Girs , scion of a rich and powerful family of Scandinavian descent, served as his Foreign Minister from to and established the peaceful policies for which Alexander has been given credit. Girs was an architect of the Franco-Russian Alliance of , which was later expanded into the Triple Entente with the addition of Great Britain. That alliance brought France out of diplomatic isolation, and moved Russia from the German orbit to a coalition with France, that was strongly supported by French financial assistance to Russia's economic modernization.

    Girs was in charge of a diplomacy that featured numerous negotiated settlements, treaties and conventions. These agreements defined Russian boundaries and restored equilibrium to dangerously unstable situations. The most dramatic success came in , settling long-standing tensions with Great Britain, which was fearful that Russian expansion to the South would be a threat to India. Peter and Paul Cathedral. Louise of Baden m. Main article: French invasion of Russia. This article may be confusing or unclear to readers. Please help us clarify the article. There might be a discussion about this on the talk page.

    April Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Ancestors of Alexander I of Russia [52] 8. Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp 4.

    Peter III of Russia 9. Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia 2. Paul I of Russia Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst 5. Catherine II of Russia Princess Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp 1. Alexander I of Russia Princess Marie Auguste of Thurn and Taxis 3. Frederick William, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt 7. Princess Friederike of Brandenburg-Schwedt Princess Sophia Dorothea of Prussia. Archived from the original on 22 June Retrieved 1 January Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 24 January Phillips , p. Novosiltsov , Sept.

    Tatischeff, p. Retrieved 16 December Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved 22 December Austria not only could not afford to switch sides straight away, because she was since French ally in dynastical sense also - and this was one of the motives, why Austria joined coalition only after Napoleon refused solution by negotiation. Austria was generally not happy with Russian Tzar's line: e. At the same time Austria wished to avert supposed Russian enmity, which would result, when Austria could be seen as intending to block Russian imperial ambitions; an attitude justified by the mentioned war, when Austria took neutral stance.

    Only then begun Russia understand, Austria is not condescending to further Russian expansion, and further on took this neutrality as hostility, which became one of the causes of World War I. Vienna VII. Circular of Jan. Martens IV. Retrieved 2 February Cox Columbia UP. Russia First: Breaking with the West.

    Fedorov in Donald J. Raleigh, ed. Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. Cambridge University Press. Baddeley, John F. The Russian Conquest of the Caucasus. London: Longmans, Green and Company. Chapman, Tim Imperial Russia, — illustrated, reprint ed. Dowling, Timothy C. Esdaile, Charles Napoleon's Wars: An International History. Flynn, James T. University Reform of Tsar Alexander I, — The Thomas Jefferson Papers Series 1. General Correspondence. Library of Congress. Lipscomb; Bergh eds. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson. Lieven, Dominic Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History.

    McCaffray, Susan P. Russian Review. Maiorova, Olga University of Wisconsin Press. Mansoori, Firooz Tehran: Hazar-e Kerman. McNaughton, C. Arnold London, U. Montefiore, Simon Sebag The Romanovs — Orion Publishing Group Ltd. Nolan, Cathal J. Greenwood Publishing Group. Retrieved 9 March Palmer, Alan Alexander I: Tsar of War and Peace. New York: Harper and Row. Sebag Montefiore, Simon The Romanovs: — Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Troubetzkoy, Alexis S. Arcade Publishing.

    Walker, Franklin A History of Education Quarterly. Zawadzki, Hubert Central Europe. Cate, Curtis. Alexander I pp Hartley, Janet M. Russian perceptions of Europe in the reign of Alexander I. McConnell, Allen. Nichols, Irby C. Character of Alexander I". Walker, Franklin A. Zawadzki, Hubert. House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov. Cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg. Russian Tsareviches and Tsesareviches.

    Ivan — Alexei — Paul — Alexander — Constantine — Alexander — Nicholas — Alexander — Nicholas — George — Michael — Alexei — Grand Dukes of Russia. The generations are numbered from Peter I of Russia. Paul I. Napoleonic Wars. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikisource. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Full name Alexander Pavlovich Romanov.

    Russian Orthodox. Sometimes rumoured to be the child of Adam Czartoryski , died aged one. Sometimes rumoured to be the child of Alexei Okhotnikov , died aged one of an infection. Nikolai Yevgenyevich Lukash.